By Maurice Casey
In the USA for the previous couple of a long time, Q discussions in the US were mostly framed by means of students like Robinson, Kloppenborg, Mack and Crossan. of their works, those students declare, with a shocking quantity of self belief, to understand many stuff in regards to the foundation, improvement, style, personality, quantity and function of Q. for that reason, many some distance achieving conclusions were asserted in regards to Christian origins and the ancient Jesus. yet fact be informed, lots of those conclusions were outfitted on little greater than hypothesis and methodological difficulties are by no means challenging to discover.
Let me attempt to summarize in brief the conclusions which have been drawn via some of the parents writing books approximately Q who've established their works at the above-mentioned students. it's usually assumed (and sometimes argued) that Q was a unmarried Greek rfile, or that it may be accurately categorised in line with genera (e.g. "sayings of the wise") or that Q and the "community" chargeable for it may be relatively linked to old Cynicism. Early Christianity, we're instructed, begun with a bunch of itinerant Cynics who loved to discuss nature and who loved being a stick within the eye of traditionalism (earliest strata of Q). Afterwards, it developed into an eschatologically-oriented crew with a lot nearer ties to Judaism (later strata of Q). Then, with the composition of Mark's Gospel and with the stratified Q's eventual enshrinement within the Gospel's of Matthew and Luke the origian Q used to be misplaced and all yet forgotten ... till fresh students recovered it and defined to us what all of it means.
Kloppenborg's stratification conception and Downing's, Vaage's, Crossan's and Mack's claims approximately Jesus being a "Cynic sage" have supplied renowned authors with fodder for all types of ridiculous ancient reconstructions in regards to the lifetime of Jesus and early Christianity. In his personal old caricature of Q learn Casey runs throughout the scholarship best as much as our unhappy present scenario in Q scholarship, targeting males like Toedt, Luehrman and Kloppenborg, displaying how their methodologies have been very unsound and feature been authorized all-too-uncritically. Casey complains of ways Q examine has turn into "beaurocratized", through which he signifies that students frequently depend upon one another's previous arguments instead of own examinations of the first resource fabric (e.g. the hot discoveries at Qumran). He additionally issues to the way in which arguments for Q contain loads of question-begging thoughts. for instance, the arguments Kloppenborg makes use of to teach how Luke or Matthew displaced convinced sayings inside Q might simply as simply be taken to teach that those sayings initially existed independently and weren't extracted from an present record (at least now not one with its personal significant association) after which rearranged in keeping with the redactor's theological programme.
Casey's criticisms on contemporary Q scholarship could on my own make the ebook worthy procuring in view that strong criticisms like his are going almost unheard within the ruckus of all of the sensationalist principles being proposed those days.
Casey additionally, particularly all at once, criticizes some of the early Aramaic techniques to the Gospels, even Matthew Black's extraordinary paintings. i discovered his comments the following insightful and a trademark of his personal reflective and important brain.
Casey's thesis is that at the least a few of Q was once initially preserved in Aramaic, now not Greek. furthermore, it was once no longer a united composition, yet could have existed as numerous autonomous sayings. The translated Greek Q existed in a minimum of translations sooner than Matthew and Luke acquired to it and those designated translations are detectable and in part recoverable via retroverting the texts into Aramaic - the language during which they have been initially preserved and which Jesus probably knew and spoke.
Casey additionally demanding situations the common assumption that Q contained not anything greater than what Matthew and Luke now carry in universal. for instance, it's always characterised as a "sayings resource" because it comprises only a few narratives. yet this declare will depend on a slightly complicated view of stratification. because it comes all the way down to us, Q contained numerous narratives (e.g. tales approximately John the Baptist, Christ's temptation, the therapeutic of the centurion's servant, Peter's leaving the scene and weeping bitterly after his three-fold denial, the query posed to Christ, "Who is he that struck you?").
One challenge i've got with Casey is his approach to demonstrating the Aramaic Vorlage in the back of Q: he attempts to teach how Matthew or Luke could have misinterpret or misinterpreted definite Aramaic phrases. i am not confident any of those arguments quite carry up.
Still, the booklet comes as a refresher to me on account that i have learn a number of books in this subject now and they have frequently been from a similar point of view. This booklet deals a special examine issues and that i imagine provides a few reliable meals for proposal. A extra complete publication on Q that i would suggest is "Q and Early Christianity" by means of Christopher Tuckett. Richard Horsley has additionally written a few stable evaluations of Kloppenborg. For a great critique of the Cynic speculation, Craig Evans has a superb bankruptcy in his ebook "Fabricating Jesus." it is a really easy learn too, not like this e-book through Casey.
Read or Download An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series) PDF
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Extra info for An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
41 t n»nta d»te lehmosÅnhn represents a misreading of the same word as zakkau (gebt Almosen). Kloppenborg contradicts this ﬁrstly by alleging that ykz means ‘both “to purify” and “to give alms” ’, but for the meaning ‘purify’ he cites only Lev. Rab. 84 One occurrence in so late a source is not enough, and Kloppenborg has misinterpreted it. The ﬁnal phrase, spoken by a beggar to the person whom he is asking for alms, is yb Amrg ykz, ‘beneﬁt yourself through me’, ‘gain yourself merit through me’.
72. , p. 82. See pp. 5–6 above, on the similar argument of Streeter. 94 This is inadequate, for two reasons. 44–5). 95 The chances of this being coincidental are surely negligible. It follows that Luke had available either an Aramaic source, or a Greek translation of an Aramaic source, for this part of the narrative. Secondly, Kloppenborg again presupposes that he must discuss his result, Q as a single Greek document. The demonstrable point is that Luke had a source which contained a genuine saying of Jesus.
Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions presented to Gilles Quispel on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday (Leiden, 1981), pp. 190–204. 122 H. Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels. Their History and Development (London and Philadelphia, 1990), pp. 91–2. For a more reasonable comparison, see M. Fieger, Das Thomasevangelium. Einleitung Kommentar und Systematik (NTA NF 22. M¨unster, 1991), pp. 233–4. ’ This presumably also explains why Koester has added to his Q version a question mark wholly inappropriate to the synoptic versions.