By Armando Rojo

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**Sample text**

12 + 9 = 2. (–2)(–3)(6) = 3. 4. 5. 6. Change to decimal: 7. Change to fraction: 8. 15 is what percent of 60? 9. (3 × 104)(2 × 108) = Answers: 1. –3 2. 36 3. 0 4. 9. 6 × 1012 5. 6. 125 7. 8. 25% CHAPTER 3 TERMINOLOGY, SETS, AND EXPRESSIONS Cha pt e r Che ck- I n ❑ Set theory ❑ Algebraic expressions ❑ Evaluating expressions nderstanding the language of algebra and how to work with algebraic expressions gives you a good foundation for learning the rules of algebra. U Set Theory A set is a group of objects, numbers, and so forth.

Example 5: Subtract the following. (a) +12 – (+4) = +12 + (–4) = 8 (b) +16 – (–6) = +16 + (+6) = 22 (c) –20 – (+3) = –20 + (–3) = –23 (d) –5 – (–2) = –5 + (+2) = –3 Minus preceding parenthesis If a minus precedes a parenthesis, it means everything within the parentheses is to be subtracted. Therefore, using the same rule as in subtraction of signed numbers, simply change every sign within the parentheses to its opposite and then add. Example 6: Subtract the following. (a) 9 –(+3 – 5 + 7 – 6) = 9 + (– 3 + 5 – 7 + 6) = 9 + (+1) = 10 (b) 20 – (+35 – 50 + 100) = 20 + (–35 + 50 – 100) = 20 + (–85) = –65 Multiplying and dividing signed numbers To multiply or divide signed numbers, treat them just like regular numbers but remember this rule: An odd number of negative signs will produce a negative answer.

Example 6: Solve for x. 6x + 3 = 4x + 5 Subtract 4x from each side of the equation. Subtract 3 from each side of the equation. Chapter 4: Equations, Ratios, and Proportions 51 Divide each side of the equation by 2. Literal equations Literal equations have no numbers, only symbols (letters). Example 7: Solve for q. qp – x = y First add x to each side of the equation. Then divide each side of the equation by p. Operations opposite to those in the original equation were used to isolate q. (To remove the –x, an x was added to each side of the equation.