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Region V~ is well mixed and is supplied adequately with oxygen while region I12is essentially stagnant and has a dis- 50 M. Charles VI V2 (WELL MIXED) (STAGNANT) > 15 % DO I I SUBSTRATE cO HEALTHY A-PRODUCER < 15 % DO B - PRODUCER, MUTANT, OR NON-VIABLE ORGANISM Fig. 32. Model o f poorly mixed reactor solved oxygen concentration of less than 15% of saturation. Such mixing conditions have been discussed for fungal cultures by Phillips and Johnson [94], Maxon [95], and Steel and Maxon [96, 99] and for polysaccharide cultures by LeDuy and Zajic [ 132] and Charles et al.

1. Newtonian Fluids Several mixing time correlations have been developed for Newtonian fluids [80-88]. However, due to the complexity of the mixing process, the fact that different tracer methods give different results, and the somewhat arbitrary definition of the mixing time, different correlations can give significantly different estimates of mixing time. 36 M. U,OS I ~ f 103 . l NEWTONIAN I t l I 104 I 105 FLUIDS ~E Z iO 2. iO m I i01 i0 ° I i0 2 I 103' i0 6 NRe Fig. 25. Mixing time correlations for non-aerated Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, turbine impeller [ 81 ] Nevertheless, available correlations do serve as valuable guides.

Solutions of high polymers usually exhibit complex non-Newtonian behavior and extracellular microbial polysaccharides are no exceptions. For example, solutions of xanthan gum and xanthan-containing culture fluids not only exhibit pronounced pseudo plasticity [20, 57, 58] as shown in Fig. 20 [57], but also yield stress [59] and thixotrophy [20]. Interestingly, the power law model provides an adequate description of rechnical Aspects of the Rheological Properties of Microbial Cultures I00,000 ' • ','"'1 , ' i ',,,"1 i = o Q.

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