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By Karlheinz Spindler

A accomplished presentation of summary algebra and an in-depth therapy of the purposes of algebraic suggestions and the connection of algebra to different disciplines, similar to quantity conception, combinatorics, geometry, topology, differential equations, and Markov chains.

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Here, two aspects should be noted. First, the seepage velocity is referred to as the Darcy velocity, which assumes that water flow occurs through the entire cross section of soils without regarding to solids and pores. Actually, the flow is limited only to the pore space. The seepage path is complicated and tortuous. The real flow cross-sectional area is smaller than A, so that real average interstitial velocity is greater than Darcy velocity v. In practice, the average flow amount through the entire soil is taken much more care.

When pumping is stopped or broken off, recovery water table should be measured with the same interval time. The standards for stable water table judgment is the same with above. If there is difference between natural and recovery stable water table, the drawdowns should be amended by the weighted arithmetic average of the difference regarding the time. 42 2 Hydrogeological Parameters Calculation 2. Unsteady flow pumping test Unsteady flow pumping test can be divided into constant-flow test and constant-drawdown test.

To obtain the real average velocity u, the flow is limited only to the pore space as u¼ Q Q ¼ A0 A Á n ð1:14Þ where n is the porosity of soils, %. In conjunction Eq. 13) with Eq. 14), it can be found that the real average velocity u is 22 1 Groundwater Fig. 17 Seepage velocity and hydraulic gradient Cl ay San d v Ib 0 I' I I'b u¼ v n ð1:15Þ Because n is always smaller than 1, in relative order of magnitude, real average velocity is greater than seepage velocity. When groundwater flows in sands, Darcy’s law is reasonable, as shown in Fig.

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