By Biondi B.L.
Seismic photos are the most important to modern exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging provides primary options and state of the art equipment for imaging mirrored image seismic facts. The e-book coherently provides the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and pace estimation - via exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The ebook emphasizes graphical knowing over theoretical improvement. a number of man made and box facts examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the amount features a DVD that incorporates a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage info set) of the SEG-EAGE salt information set and of the corresponding pace version. The DVD additionally encompasses a entire set of PDF slides that may be used to educate the cloth awarded within the booklet.
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Extra info for 3-D seismic imaging
4), we obtain the equivalent spreading surface: 2 2 4z ξ2 4 xξ − xm 4 yξ − ym + 2 2 + = 1. 6). 2 shows both the full prestack-migration ellipsoid (outer surface) and its spherical approximation (inner surface). As for the summation surfaces, the exact operator and the approximate operator are tangent along the curve passing through the bottom of the surfaces and oriented in the cross-line direction. Therefore, only the reflectors that are not dipping with respect to the in-line direction are perfectly imaged by the approximate procedure.
5. The zero-offset ray reflected from any point on the ellipsoid belongs to the line orthogonal to the ellipsoid at the reflection point. 14) where z zo , xzo , and yzo are the running coordinates along the zero-offset ray. 2. 5: Prestack migration ellipsoid and zero-offset ray. partial-dmo-ellipse [NR] y zo α x ξ z zero-offset ray at the surface, as follows: z zo = 0 2h 2 cos α xzo = tD V yzo = 0. 13), into the following expression for the traveltime along the zero-offset ray: 2 2 tzo V 2 = z ξ2 + xξ − xzo + yξ2 .
These three angles are analytically related by cos θ = sin α cos η. 11) The final expression for the NMO velocity is thus VN = V 1 − sin2 α cos2 η . 1, the stacking velocity is equal to the medium velocity when either the reflector is flat (α = 0) or the dip direction is perpendicular to the trace azimuth (η = ±90◦ ). In these cases, the poststack imaging procedure migrates the reflections exactly. In contrast, when the dip direction is parallel to the trace azimuth (η = 0) and the reflector is vertical (α = ±90◦ ), the NMO velocity tends to infinity.